Saturday, January 18, 2020

Pechay

Alexander L. Division. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Science and Technology IV (Physics) October 3, 2011 Chapter 1 Problem and Its Background A. Introduction For almost three decades, farmers in the Philippines have been using chemical fertilizers, pesticides and growth regulators in their crop production strategies. Despite the high cost of these inputs, and the farmers' awareness that they can adversely affect soil fertility, food quality, human and animal health, and environmental quality; they are used extensively because there are few alternatives that would be considered practical and feasible.One reason for this is that university-based research has strongly promoted the use of agricultural chemicals as ten Test means AT canceling ten enlightens possible crop yelled. I nee predominant question then is how can the farmers shift from a chemical-intensive agriculture to one that is based on the utilization of natural systems, and still maintain their economic Viab ility. It is encouraging that there are some efforts now underway by university researchers, the Philippine government, and the private sector to develop nature farming as an alternative to chemical-based agriculture.The government. The critical role of the agriculture sector in a country's overall economic development as stylized in economic development literature is well known. It releases surplus labor to the industry and services sectors. With 70 percent of the country's poor coming from the rural areas where agriculture is the dominant source of livelihood and employment, the importance of agriculture to the Philippine economy cannot be overemphasized. B. Background of the Study Plants are affected by different substances that come into contact with them. These effects may be good or bad.There are certain substances such as fertilizers, which have a positive effect on the growth of certain plants, more specifically peachy (Brassier ARPA variety cheesiness). Peachy is commonly u sed in cooking in Filipino households. It requires little attention as it is a very hardy plant. It is rich in vitamins A, C, K, and fiber as well, which are all good for our bodies. They grow best in cold seasons. The researchers selected this study to know the effects of different colors of cellophane in peachy. The researchers wanted to find out if these materials would benefit or cause damage to the peachy plant.C. Statement of the Problem The study aims to know the effects of different colors of cellophane in peachy plant especially intent to answer the following questions. 1 . What color of cellophane has the greatest effect on peachy plant in terms of its color of leaves? 2. What color of cellophane has the greatest effect on peachy plant in terms of its height? 3. How tall is peachy plant with the following colors of cellophane: green, red, yellow and clear cellophanes? Compare it to the height of peachy plant without cellophane. D.Significance of the Study Since agriculture is one of the main sources of income for the people in the entry, the researchers would want to determine if different colors of cellophane would affect ten growth Ana color AT pecans plant. I Nils study tout ten erects AT different colors of cellophane is significant because this study will educate the people how the use of cellophane can affects the growth and color of peachy plant. If this study is successful, the researchers will be able to inform the people on how they can make their plants grow faster .Through this experiment, we might be able to find ways of increasing the growth of the peachy plants. E. Conceptual Framework [pick] Chapter 2 Review of Related Literatures and Studies A wide variety of Oriental greens are prepared as vegetables, and many are available to gardeners in Philippines. These greens belong to several different species, and there are several varieties of each, making their classification a bit confusing. Brassier ARPA (synonym,B. Campsites) is the pre dominant species, with several different varieties. Chinese cabbage is Brassier ARPA vary. Kinesics, which includes subtypes that form heads, known as won book and Nap cabbage, as well as leaseholder types. Imbuing and mizzen greens are B. Arrival. Monopolistic; these lawns form fairly large clumps with many stems bearing narrow leaves. Peachy (Brassier ARPA vary. cheesiness) includes types called white cabbage, spoon cabbage, choc Sam (Singapore), pack choc (Hawaii), and taigas and Sharon Pan), as well as others. The preferred type of peachy has dark green leaves and long, white, somewhat wide petioles. Some other varieties have shorter, slightly green petioles.Some varieties are grown for the flowering stems rather than the leaves . The mustard greens grown in the southeastern United States, and the aria and Carson grown for oilseed in India and Pakistan. It is also called brown mustard and Indian mustard. Its forms are variable, with leaves that are smooth or hairy, entire or div ided, and petioles that are either narrow or wide. Compared to peachy, its leaves are lighter green and its petioles are green and shorter. The flowering breccias include choc sum (B. Arrival. Parenthesis), purple flowering pack choc (B. Arrival. Rupture), and Chinese broccoli or Gillian (B. Learner vary. Laborer). Peachy (Brassier ARPA L. C.v. group Pack Choc') is an erect, biennial herb, cultivated as an annual about 15-30 CM tall in vegetative stage. Ovate leaves are arranged spirally and spreading. The petioles are enlarged and grow upright forming a subtropical bundle. Inflorescence is a raceme with pale yellow flowers. Seeds are 1 mm in diameter and are reddish to blackish brown in color. (http://www. Dwarfed. Ad. Gob. PH/peachy. HTML) Uses Ana Nutritional value Peachy is used mainly for its immature, but fully expanded tender leaves.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

The Story Of An Hour By Kate Chopin - 1268 Words

Kate Chopin is a very creative author not only is she creative in her literature but also very realistic. She will help you comprehend how a person in an unhappy marriage would rather live their lives and the changes that will have to be made to be able to live that life. â€Å"Story of an hour† is one of her stories that speaks upon how it would be if her husband was to actually pass away, how everything would be so much better and how much happier she would be without him. â€Å"The storm† is a little different but not so much. The storm explains how theirs a sense of freedom that all of the character crave. Both of these stories have to do with change and freedom. In order to be happy you have to go through change and also be free from certain things and people. This is Kate Chopin’s view of finding happiness in an unsatisfied marriage. â€Å"Story of an hour† is all about change and realistic views. She’s a wife with heart troubles who isn’t really satisfied in her marriage anymore. One day she is told that her husband passed away her whole view on life changed. People would expect a married woman to mourn the death of her husband for a long time but a little after mourning and crying she realizes that she will be widow and she would no longer have to live under her husbands will. She then refers to her new life as â€Å"The new spring life† (Chopin115). We all know that spring is a beautiful season filled with beautiful weather this means that her new life would be different but it wouldShow MoreRelatedThe Story Of An Hour By Kate Chopin1241 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"The Story of an Hour† by Kate Chopin is a wonderful short story bursting with many peculiar twists and turns. Written in 1894, the author tells a tale of a woman who learns of her husband’s death, but comes to find pleasure in it. Many of the elements Kate Chopin writes about in this story symbolize something more than just the surface meaning. Through this short story, told in less than one thousand one hundred words, Kate Chopin illustrates a deeper meaning of Mrs. Mallard’s marriage with herRead MoreThe Story Of An Hour By Kate Chopin855 Words   |  4 PagesThe Story of an Hour In the â€Å"Story of an Hour† by Kate Chopin, is about pleasure of freedom and the oppression of marriage. Just like in Kate Chopin’s story, inside most marriages, even the ones that seem to be the happiest, one can be oppressed. Even though, one might seem to be happy deep inside they miss the pleasure of freedom and living life to the fullest. Just like, in this story Mrs. Mallard feels trapped and when she hears about her husband’s death she first feels distraught, but ultimatelyRead MoreThe Story Of An Hour By Kate Chopin1457 Words   |  6 PagesEmotions and Death Everyone who reads a story will interpret things slightly different than the person who reads it before or after him or her. This idea plays out with most every story, book, song, and movie. These interpretations create conflict and allow people to discuss different ideas and opinions. Without this conflict of thought there is no one devoting time to debate the true meaning of a text. Kate Chopin’s â€Å"The Story of an Hour† tells about a woman who is informed of her husbands deathRead MoreThe Story Of An Hour By Kate Chopin987 Words   |  4 PagesIn Kate Chopin’s short story, â€Å"The Story of an Hour† reader’s see a potentially long story put into a few pages filled with rising action, climax and even death. In the beginning of the story, character Louise Mallard, who has a heart condition, is told of the death of her husband by her sister and one of her husband’s friends. Afterwards Mrs. Mallard is filled with emptiness and then joy of freedom. This joy of freedom is actually what consequently leads to her death in the end when she discoversRead MoreThe Story Of An Hour By Kate Chopin1061 Words   |  5 PagesThroughout the short story, â€Å"The Story of an Hour†, readers are introduced to characters whose lives change drastically in the course of this writing. Through Kate Chopin’s story we can identify many different themes and examples of symbolism in her writing. Chopin’s choice of themes in this writing are no surprise due to the time frame of which this story was written. Chopin often wrote stories with of women’s rights, and is noted as one of America’s first open feminists. As this story of an ill, helplessRead MoreThe Story Of An Hour By Kate Chopin972 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"The Story of an Hour† by Kate Chopin expresses Ms. Mallard’s feelings towards her husband’s death in an appalling train accident. Due to her bad heart, her sister Josep hine had to be the bearer of bad news and approach his death gently to her. According to the quote, â€Å" But now there was a dull stare in her eyes, whose gaze was fixed away off yonder on one of those patches of blue sky. It was not a glance of reflection, but rather indicated a suspension of intelligent thought†, it lets us know thatRead MoreThe Story Of An Hour By Kate Chopin998 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"The story of an hour† by Kate Chopin was a story that was ironical yet profoundly deep. As a student I have been asked to read â€Å"a story of an hour† many times, and every time I’m surprised by how I enjoy it. People can read thousands of stories in their life times and only a handful will every stand out to them, stories that can draw out an emotion or spark a thought are the ones that will standout more. For me and â€Å"a story of an hour† the thought of freedom is what draws me the most as a teenageRead MoreThe Story Of An Hour By Kat e Chopin1542 Words   |  7 PagesIn the short story, â€Å"Story of an Hour†, Kate Chopin writes about a woman with heart trouble, Mrs. Mallard, who, in finding out about the death of her husband, Mr. Mallard, experiences some initial feelings of sadness which quickly transition into the exhilarating discovery of the idea of a newfound freedom lying in front of her. When it is later revealed that her husband is not actually dead, she realizes she will not get to taste that freedom. The devastation kills her. What Mrs. Mallard goes throughRead MoreThe Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin596 Words   |  2 PagesIn â€Å"The Story of an Hour,† Kate Chopin focuses on the idea of freedom throughout the story. Mrs. Mallard is a lonely wife who suffers from heart trouble. She is told by her sister Josephine and her husband’s friend Richards that her husband has passed away in a train accident. She locks herself in a room expecting to be devastated, but instead feels freedom. Later, she exits her room and her husband walks through the door, causing her to die of a heart attack. Chopin uses this story to demonstrateRead MoreThe Story Of An Hour By Kate Chopin886 Words   |  4 Pages In Kate Chopin â€Å"The Story of an Hour†, the reader is presented with the theme of prohibited independence. In Kate Chopin â€Å"The Storm†, the scenery in this story builds the perfect atmosphere for an adulterous affair. The importance of these stories is to understand the era they occurred. Kate Chopin wrote stories with exceptional openness about sexual desires. In â€Å"The Storm†, a short story written by Kate Chopin in a time when women were expected to act a certain way and sexual cravings was considered

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Common Sense Human Rational Thinking - 1490 Words

Common Sense:( naturalistic, non-factual, cannot be proven, subjective ). We tend to base our views of society on our own and our friends and relations experiences. This is likely to be a rather narrow view. Many people have negative views of ethnic minorities when they have never even met members of these groups. Their beliefs are not based on solid information. Its a basic ability to understand and judge things, which is shared by people around without any debate about it. Its form of human rational thinking. Example: someone who started off career in a low position and now become manager or director of this company. This can allows you think that this is common that after time you can go up position after some experience. However,†¦show more content†¦The more evidence you collect, and more carefully you collect it, the more accurate your results will probably be. Research Process : 1) Area of investigation Start with identify a topic to research and question to address. Think of some general ideas or topic areas that you are interested in researching. Its a preparing for the project, defining the research problems. - discovered something, met some unusual people - studied or learn about something exciting or interesting there is no easy way to identify area to research and there is needs to ask some questions first. 1. Is it possible to obtain data ( primary and secondary ) 2. Project should have strong links to the subject matter of your course 3. How about ethic? Is it right to do it, can this harm you, will you be in danger during this? You need to have a bright idea. Good way to identify possible topic is to spend some time talking to colleagues, and must be what you enjoy with. However, there some situations that you can feel lost, but do not panic. Good way is to start off by thinking about the big topics that interest and motivate. 2) Literature Review In order to obtain information, there needs to have idea of the kind of things that is looking for. You should know about the theories and evidence that currently exist in topic area. Always keep a look out for articles and programmes relevant to your research. - newspapers ( good source of current information on a

Monday, December 16, 2019

Year-Round Schooling Free Essays

Year-round school presents a very controversial issue that school districts struggle with every year. The same arguments, facts, and statistics are presented annually, and somehow a conclusion is never reached. Many people believe that year-round school would be a step in the right direction. We will write a custom essay sample on Year-Round Schooling or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although there are many positive innovations to year-round school, the advantages do not outweigh the disadvantages of cost, breaks, vacations, employment, and scheduling. The traditional school calendar as been the same since the 1800s. This calendar is the traditional 180-day system with a two month break for summer. It was not operated on the year-round system way back when because farmers needed their children in the summertime to help tend the farms. Many people believe that this traditional style should change because it is outdated, but why should we change the schedule that our ancestors made if it still works without any flaws? Year-round school operates on a 180-day system, the same as the traditional calendar. The main difference between the two systems is the amount of time on break. There are many forms of the year-round calendar, as each individual school district may choose whichever plan they believe will fit their schools the best. The most popular examples of these schedules include: 45-15, 60-20, and 90-30 (Kelly). These represent the number of days attending school to the number of days off. These schedules would repeat over and over year-round, so the students would only get small breaks periodically throughout the year. Although these periodic breaks would add up to the same amount of days students would get off during a summer break, research says it would not help the academic achievement of the students. In other words, it is not how long the kids are in the classroom, it is how engaged in learning they are while there are there (Morin). Another example of why year-round schooling would not be a good idea is because it would separate American families that are used to traditional summer vacations. Families have always been accustomed to planning summer activities like vacations, reunions, and summer camps. If students were in school for the greater part of the summer, it would make it very difficult for families to plan these activities and typical childhood memories would get lost in the shuffle of year-round school. It is very important for children’s development to spend quality time with family and friends and with year-round schooling, this simply would not happen. Not only would it make hurt your average family during the summer, it would also hurt the school’s employees. Year-round school would put more demand on school staff such as cafeteria, custodial and maintenance services because they would have to make special accommodations for events such as graduation and dances. Also, teachers who would usually continue their own educational careers during the summertime would have to find alternate forms of education due to their now unusable schedule (Vandewater). Along with significant disadvantages, there are also distinct advantages associated with year-round schooling. Some year-round school advocates suggest that a shift in the time designated for teaching and learning will help students achieve more by minimalizing summer learning loss, allowing for innovation and implementation of creative programs, and by providing the time needed to assist children who need extra help (Lynch). By having breaks that are more consistent, some say that shorter vacations might also help students retain information they would’ve forgot over a two-month break. Basically, shortening breaks will improve student achievement. Another pro would be how year-round schooling could replace summer school, which many districts have cancelled due to budget cuts. For students that traditionally attend summer school because they need remediation, year-round school allows remediation to be addressed throughout the year. In conclusion, schools shouldn’t convert to year-round schooling because it wouldn’t help any with learning loss over summer break, it would separate families by discontinuing the traditional childhood summer, and it would hurt the schools’ employees. Although year-round schooling sounds as if it might have some potential, there are too many flaws involved with it right now to confirm that it would making schooling better. How to cite Year-Round Schooling, Papers

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Advertisement Strategy of Open Family

Question: Discuss about the Advertisement Strategy of Open Family. Answer: Introduction: From the assignment 1, it has been found that the Open Family is an NGO in Australia that helps homeless and needy youth. This company is working in this sector for the last 34 years. It has been found that homelessness has become a serious issue in this country. Youths between the age group of 12 to 14 are the major victim of domestic violence and family breakdown that gives rise to this issue (Openfamily 2017). The Open Family tries to provide best quality service to these homeless youths. The organization operates in Victoria and New South Wales to provide assertive service to the young homeless people. The mission of the company is to provide shelter to the youths, who are at the verge of losing their home. They will also work with these youths in order to improve their quality of life. The vision of the company is to provide support to the homeless people, so that they can overcome their depression and poverty and build a better future (Openfamily 2017). It has been found that, the organization provides different types of service to young people. They are such as community ownership, mentoring, mobile youth outreach and wellbeing of needy people. From the macro environmental analysis (PESTLE analysis), it has been found that local government is major channel of funding for the organization. It has also been found that presently the Australian government has reduced the budget of local government (Openfamily 2017). It has increased pressure on the organization. Economic factors like recession and inflation rate have also affected the business of the company. Presently, social exclusion has increased in the Australian industry. It has made the business more significant in terms social perspectives. Different laws and policies of Australia like tax law, employment t law, import and export law, safety and security law and consumer law have affected the business of Open Family. It has been found that Open Family mainly targets young people between the age group of 12 to 25. However, the company is now wants to recruit young people between the age group of 18 to 35 to work with the organization. In the assignment 2, a background summary of assignment 1 has been provided. After that promotional strategy for the organization has been developed. In this section different aspects of IMC mix have been discussed along with promotional tools that need to be used. In the last section, it has been mentioned how the company can implement these strategies to attract youth volunteers. Aspects of IMC (Integrated Marketing Communication) According to Martnez (2012), integrated marketing communication is not as easy as it sounds. It includes different aspects of communication like marketing tactics, public relation and advertising. All these aspects need to be coordinated appropriately, so that marketing objectives can be fulfilled. All these aspects are described below: Boone and Kurtz (2013) stated that, this strategy (PR) can be used to develop and foster the relationship with public.In addition, it helps to develop favorable image and credible reputation for an organization. Bickhoff et al. (2014) mentioned that, presently social media has become an important part to enhance relationship with customers and show responsiveness. According to Armstrong et al. (2012), the difference between advertising and public relation is that, it is focused on channels. These channels are like newspaper, television, radio station and billboard to place company massage. Peck et al. (2013) stated that, sales promotion technique is a significant part of a companys sales and marketing plan. It can be integrated with other communications elements to make the messages cohesive. It also can boost a companys promotional efforts. According to Pealoza et al. (2013), the direct mail targets specific audiences (certain income level people with a defined geographical boundary). This strategy can solicit action within a specific time period, with the help of different items of mail like expiration dates or seasonal catalogs and coupons. The direct mail required to be creative and leverage that creativity with other communication. Advertisement as a promotional tool The company Open Family has decided to use advertisement as the effective promotional tool for marketing. The company is going to use different channels such as television, radio station, magazine and billboards to place its message. This strategy of marketing is going to be used, as it allows the company to control what they want to say, where they want to say and how long it will be telecasted to the audiences or viewers. This strategy can help 18-35 years students to work for the company. Advertisement Strategy to recruit volunteers The management of the Open Family will have to follow some steps in order to develop a proper advertisement strategy to recruit volunteers for the organization. Those recommended steps are hereby mentioned below. Role description for the volunteers: Before issuing an advertisement for volunteers, Open Family management will have to develop a volunteer role description (Aristide and Dimitrakakis 2015). Volunteers must know what they will be asked to do in the organization. Identifying target audience: It is important for Open Family to understand who they are trying to interact with and how they might tailor their ad to attract their audience. Using suitable language and media will play a major role. As Open Family is looking to recruit volunteers aged among 18 to 35, it is recommended that online advertisement would be the best possible strategy (Pasqualotti and Baccino 2014). Besides, local press, television and radio can also help to reach a wider audience. Developing a catchy title: A catchy title must be developed for the role of the volunteers. A properly developed catchy title will ensure that the ad will grab peoples attention (Malik et al. 2014). Besides, the title must also precisely represent the role of the volunteers. Design of advertising and copy layout: Ample amount of time and creativity must be there into the design, language and copy layout of the advertisement. The body-copy must be divided by using bullet points. Using long unwieldy sentences must be avoided (Wahyuni and Fitriani 2014). A proper font style and font size should be selected that can be read clearly for the posters that will be distributed in different places. Having bullet points and short concise sentences in the advertisement will help the volunteers to scan through it (Kolomok and Krapivensky 2013). They will understand the advertisement quickly. Emotion imaginary can also be included in the advertisement as it will grab attention and will invoke a reaction. Organizations Mission: A simple one liner should be added to describe the role of the organization and its mission. Sell the opportunity: The management of Open Family must realize that there are other organizations looking for volunteers. In this situation it is paramount to portray the company and its role in a best possible way (West 2013). Besides, all the advantages that the volunteers will receive must be mentioned in the advertisement. Emphasize time assurance: It is the major part of the advertisement. Open Family management will have to highlight the required time commitment, does not matter whether it is 2 hours a week or 20 hours per month (Enos and Hersh 2015). If this information is not there in the advertisement, then the potential volunteers will suppose a large time assurance is necessary and will consequently not apply. List of benefits: Working to make the society a better place can be a suitable title. However, volunteers will give their time only when they will gain something from It. It is important to outline the benefits that the volunteers will gain by getting involved with Open Family. By working with Open Family, volunteers will get a chance to make a difference, help people in need and will be able to make new friends (Moriarty et al. 2014). Besides, they will also gain work experience which will help them to begin a new career. These all points must be presented in the advertisement. Description of the application process: This is another critical aspect of the advertisement. In the advertisement all the steps of application process must be described in a proper manner (Barnard and Kreiss 2013). For example, if someone is interested, what should they do next? Is there any type of information form? Who must they contact to get the application form? Is there an interview process? When the interview will start? What should be the location of the interview? What documents they must carry for the interview? Is there a dress code? Contact Details: In the advertisement, a phone number must be included so that potential volunteers can gather more information if they want. Open Family have their official website. Therefore, the link of the website can be shared in the advertisement. The management of the organization must make sure that they have ample amount of resources in place to respond to applicants within one or two days (Vromen and Coleman 2013). If Open Family fails to respond promptly then it will portray a negative image. As a result volunteers will lose their interest in it. Where to advertise: Open family can select one specific media for advertisement, or they can use a combination of advertising methods. It is recommended that they use a combination of advertising methods as it will deliver better results and will reach to the new groups in the community. First of all, the management of Open Family can utilize local press, televisions and radios. Hanging posters in local job centers will also cultivate good results. Church newsletters can also be used as an advertisement process (Gregory 2015). Open Family can also make presentations to local businesses or can attend volunteer fairs. Another productive method is word of mouth through friends and families of services users and existing volunteers. The management of Open Family can also use social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter to gain attention of potential volunteers. The can create a Facebook page where all information related to Open Family and their recruitment process will be shared. Volunteers can ask questions directly via the comment section. It will also help the organization to develop a relationship with the volunteers. Management of Open Family can place ads free of charge with their local volunteer center. They can also place their ads on www.volunteer.com.ie (McDonough and Egolf 2015). Celebrity endorsement process can also be used as an advertisement method. In this process, famous celebrities will appear in a video and will ask volunteers to join Open Family and to help the organization to support the young people of the country. Conclusion: From the assignment 1, it has been found that the major objective of the company is to provide shelter to the homeless youths of Australia and work with them to improve their life style. Youths belong to the age group of 12-25 is the major target for the organization. It has been found that cutting down the budget has pressurized the company. In the assignment 2, section a promotional strategy has been developed for the organization. After analyzing different aspects of integrated marketing communication, advertisement has been selected as the effective promotional tools to attract volunteers belong to age group of 18-35. It has been found that there some major steps that the company needs follow to develop this advertisement. At first, the management team has to develop a volunteer role description. Then the management team needs to decide the target audience for this advertisement. It has been found that the target audience for this advertisement is youths belong to that age group of 18 to 35 years. The company needs to select suitable language and media as they important role in advertisement. After that, the company needs to develop a catchy title for the advertisement. The company needs to provide ample amount of time to design the advertisement more creatively. In case of TV and radio advertisement it is required to add emotional content. It will attract the organization to attract more youth volunteers towards the company. References Aristide, T. and Dimitrakakis, C., 2015, December. Optimal Advertisement Strategies for Small and Big Companies. InInternational Conference on e-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries(pp. 94-98). Springer International Publishing. Armstrong, G., Kotler, P., Harker, M., and Brennan, R., 2012, Marketing : An Introduction, Pearson Prentice-Hall, London, London Barnard, L. and Kreiss, D., 2013. A Research Agenda for Online Advertising: Surveying Campaign Practices, 2000-2012.International Journal of Communication,7, p.21. Bickhoff, N., Hollensen, S., and Opresnik, M., 2014,The Quintessence of Marketing: Strategic and Operative Marketing PlanningSegmenting, Targeting, Positioning.pp. 47-11 Boone, L., and Kurtz, D., 2013, Contemporary marketing. USA: Cengage Learning Enos, R.D. and Hersh, E.D., 2015. Party activists as campaign advertisers: The ground campaign as a principal-agent problem.American Political Science Review,109(02), pp.252-278. Gregory, A., 2015.Planning and managing public relations campaigns: A strategic approach. Kogan Page Publishers. Kolomok, O.I. and Krapivensky, A.S., 2013. Pedagogical and sociological aspects of Youth volunteering.World Applied Sciences Journal,23(10), pp.1330-1333. Malik, M.E., Ghafoor, M.M. and Iqbal, H.K., 2014. The Impact of Advertisement and Consumer Perception on Consumer Buying Behavior.International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities,6(2), pp.55-64. Martnez, P., 2012, The Consumer Mind: Brand Perception and the Implications for Marketers, USA: Kogan Page Ltd McDonough, J. and Egolf, K., 2015.The advertising age encyclopedia of advertising. Routledge. Moriarty, S., Mitchell, N.D., Wells, W.D., Crawford, R., Brennan, L. and Spence-Stone, R., 2014.Advertising: Principles and practice. Pearson Australia. Openfamily, M. 2017.What We Do - Open Family Australia. [online] Openfamily.org.au. Available at: https://www.openfamily.org.au/what-we-do.html [Accessed 11 Jan. 2017]. Pasqualotti, L. and Baccino, T., 2014. Online advertisement: how are visual strategies affected by the distance and the animation of banners?.Frontiers in psychology,5. Peck, H., Christopher, M., Clark, M., and Payne, A., 2013, Relationship Marketing, Burlington: Linacre house, Jordon hill Pealoza, L., Toulouse, N., and Visconti, L. M., 2013,Marketing management: A cultural perspective, USA: Routledge Vromen, A. and Coleman, W., 2013. Online campaigning organizations and storytelling strategies: GetUp! in Australia.Policy Internet,5(1), pp.76-100. Wahyuni, S. and Fitriani, N., 2014, May. The Effectiveness of TV Advertisement: A Comparative Study on Esia and Flexi. International Conference om Business And Information 2009, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. West, D.M., 2013.Air wars: Television advertising and social media in election campaigns, 1952-2012. Sage.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Luther man between God and the Devil

Introduction The preface to Luther by Heiko A. Oberman gives the reader a sneak preview of what to expect while reading the book. In his opening sentence however, Oberman warns the reader that discovering Luther is something that cannot fit within the confine of scholarship exposition. To understand Luther however, Oberman notes that people must be ready to leave behind their views about the world and life.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Luther: man between God and the Devil specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because Luther’s world was different from what the contemporary man knows; the church had so much power that it was equated to heaven, while the emperor’s represented the â€Å"powers of heaven† (xix). Reading through the book, one gets the impression that Oberman shares in the religious and spiritual issues that he documents about Luther having gone through. He relates the Luther experiences and discoveries both in terms of emotional and physical struggles as the same as what people in the contemporary society face. In the preface, one gets the impression that Oberman does not give religion or the state of the society as much weight as a factor that affected Luther’s life. This is made clear by the phrase, â€Å"It is not the Catholic, protestant or modern Luther we are looking for†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (xix). He however acknowledges that â€Å"we† will encounter religions and society’s state in the course of reading the book. The use of â€Å"we† in preface gives the reader the impression that he/she is not alone in discovering Luther. Oberman makes himself part of the journey too. The dying scene The main body of Oberman’s books starts with the dying scene where Luther is being attended by the â€Å"Reverend father†. It was February 18, 1546 when Luther Died. Before his death, Luther went through some final te sting where witnesses were summoned by his friend Justus Jonas just to confirm that Luther had â€Å"died steadfast in Christ and the doctrines that he had preached† (3). Oberman notes that Luther had always prayed that he would always be able to resist the devil to the very end believing that resisting Satan, who is branded as the ultimate and bitterest enemy to human kind would be his ultimate liberation from the tyranny posed by sin. Oberman also notes that Luther believed that a trust in God convinced him that the agony that he suffered in his life would be nothing more than brief blow upon his death (3).Advertising Looking for critical writing on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Liberal thinking Oberman further succeeds in portraying Luther as a person who had his own way of thinking. As indicated in the book, the author narrates that Luther adjusted his time with benchmarks rather than tolerance , enlightenment, modernity or progress to determine time. In order to understand Luther therefore, Oberman suggests that â€Å"we† need to read Luther’s history with a non-conventional perspective (12). Luther’s influence on the politics of the day seems to have been known to him more than anyone else. In one scene for example, Oberman states that Luther knew he posed a risk to the policy in Saxony. Since he did not want to break the sovereign’s freedoms that would be contained in political actions, he made the Saxony’s elector an attractive proposal that if accepted would have seen him leave the land (22). In a bid to stop Luther from leaving, the elector summoned him and promised to take a neutral position, while granting Luther the academic freedoms necessary to discuss scriptural questions with his students without any hindrances. Yet, Luther’s affair with the law was not always smooth. In 1520 for example, Pope Leo announced a condition al excommunication to Luther based on his works, which the pope defined as â€Å"heretical, offensive and false† (Oberman 22). The pope however gave Luther 60 days to submit a response. Luther however could do nothing like that and finally in 1521, the Pope signed the excommunication letter, hoping that it had finally settled the troubles that arose from Luther. Luther’s supporters argued that the excommunication was motivated by the fact that the church could not stand reformation, yet a time for the same in the church was long overdue (Oberman 24). Reformist, teacher, doctor or preacher? Oberman’s book further notes that Luther’s influence on reformation would have ended sooner were it not for the death of Emperor Maximilian I in 1519. Before the death of the emperor, the Elector Cajetan in Saxon had done a lot to protect Luther. However, his protection of Luther stood no chance of surviving a final decision by the Papacy in Rome. Luckily however, the d eath of the emperor created a political upheaval in succession, which for a fair amount of time shifted attention from the Luther question.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Luther: man between God and the Devil specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The controversy between the Germans and the Papacy regarding Luther was clear as one end held that no one could be placed under a ban without being accorded a suitable hearing, while the other side maintained that Luther was under an automatic ban due to his incorrigible and notorious heretics (Oberman 36). While the Papal attracted critics, Oberman portrays Luther as having gained more public support especially from his writings which criticized how cases were â€Å"nipped in the bud† when they were tried in the imperial, papal or local courts (36). Having argued that no one deserved being banned without being given fair hearing, the Germans succeeded in convincing the Papacy to grant Luther a hearing. In 1521 therefore, Luther appeared before the Bishop’s court sought to find the reality about the accusations of heretics placed on Luther. During the hearing, Oberman portrays Luther as a tactical and knowledgeable person who refused to answer non-specific questions. Asked whether he recognized the books written in his name as his own work, Luther sought to have the books mentioned individually (38). According to Oberman, the mentioning of the books served to dispense the notion that Luther was a â€Å"stupid monk† to anyone in the court room who may have held that idea. Asked whether he could recant, Luther requested the court to give him time to think. On his return the following day, his answer was an indirect one. He said that his books were neither polemical nor sharp. He stated that his writing addressed the Christian faith and life as directed by the gospel. To this end, he stated that not even the opponents woul d find anything objectionable in the books. About the books that addressed the Papacy, Luther told the court that he had addressed how the papal office had ruined the church, weighed the human conscience down and oppressed the empire. He therefore argued that he could not renounce anything he had written in his books because by doing so, he would be encouraging tyranny.Advertising Looking for critical writing on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By recounting this episode, Oberman portrays Luther as a person who stood steadfast with what he believed in regardless of whether he had the support from others or not. In a documented recounting of the proceeding that took place in the hearing, Luther is portrayed as a watchful person who not only realized that the hearing was not intended to gather information, but rather to accept the anticipated recantation by Luther or uphold the ban. Since the hearing was made of Germans, Luther argued that instead of acting independently, the Germans had acted childishly, allowing themselves to be fooled by the Romans. Oberman observes that though Luther’s evaluation of how the interrogation was conducted was indeed valid, he (Luther) was wrong about the Germans acting childishly. Oberman argues that no where in western Christendom would people find it politically viable to protect a seemingly rebellious monk against extradition from Rome. More so, obtaining a public hearing like what the Germans did for Luther who was perceived by Rome as a notorious heretic was also unusual. According to Oberman therefore, the same Germans who Luther has termed â€Å"follies† had kept his issue alive in such a long time such that the ban imposed by Rome was stifled (Oberman 40). Oberman’s book gives a clear picture of Luther’s attack on Rome and the papacy and gives the reader the actions that made Luther such a bitter person against the actions of Rome. At some point in the book, Luther is quoted saying that every person in Rome had gone crazy and â€Å"†¦had become inane fools and the devils† (Oberman 43). His reason for such strong wording about Romans was the fact that they had accepted the information passed by the church in Rome in that time, which Luther referred to as lies, which were being passed on as truths. According to Luther, Rome was the devil’s gateway to the church, yet, Christ sought representation through people who we re willing to work, preach, suffer and die. Instead however, the office of the Pope which was supposed to act as the servant of Christ leading the way for the church followers had become the â€Å"ruler of rulers† (Oberman 43). Reading this book however, one not only identifies the character of Luther, but also Oberman’s character as well. For instance, by making the devil a central agenda in his biography of Luther, one gets the impression that Oberman shared the convictions that Luther had about good and evil. One also gets the impression that not only does Oberman find the justification for a faith in Christianity, but he also finds â€Å"a new belief in the devil† (104). Surprisingly, Luther and Oberman are from different centuries. Luther was from the middle ages, while Oberman just wrote the book in the 19th century. Yet Oberman’s writing succeeds in portraying the devil not as a medieval residue, but an astonishingly modern reality. Oberman specifi cally portrays Luther’s role giving the reader a new understanding of Satan’s role in a person’s life. Through Luther’s believes and discoveries regarding Satan, Oberman gives the reader a few insights about how Satan allegedly operates. For example, as opposed to what many people may think; holiness and sanctity does not necessarily mean that the devil is absent. According to Luther, acts of Christianity which include preaching the gospels, people gathering to hear God’s word and other things that Christians do in order to strengthen their faiths provoke Satan to attack Christians even more. Luther also notes that in an attempt to ‘mislead’ Christians, the devil ties people down to religiosity. To this, Oberman adds that one is entangle in self devout analysis. He thus concluded that the ideals of divinization, perfection and holiness are Satan’s way of misleading the Christian faithful. Unlike a person who seeks Christ because he or she is â€Å"filthy and sinful†, Oberman notes that those who think they are divine, perfect or holy do not see the need to do so. Oberman is also successful in drawing a distinction between modern Protestantism and what Luther believed. Most notably, Oberman documents the high regard that Luther had for the sacraments. Despite his protests against the act of the Catholic Church and the papacy, Luther is quoted as having said â€Å"I am undeserving, but I rely on the faith of the church- or of another believer. Whatever my situation, O Lord, I must be obedient to your church, which bids me to go to communion. If I bring you nothing else, at least I bring you this Obedience† (Oberman 242). Further distinction between modern Protestantism and what Luther believed is portrayed by Oberman as his demand that Christians go to confession at least once annually. To this, Luther stated that instead of people approaching the sacraments with fear and humility, they should have faith and be confident when taking part in the sacraments. Through abandoning humility and fear and embracing faith and confidence, Luther argued that people would stop seeking worthiness, since no one could be worthy before God. Luther’s stand about the sacrament did not go unchallenged. Oberman notes that the Swiss for example questioned the profit that people got from assuming that Christ’s flesh was represented in the Holy Communion, while Christ himself had dismissed the flesh as having no profit. Further the Swiss questioned Luther how obedience can replace insufficient faith. With no clear answers from Luther regarding these questions, the Swiss branded Luther a neo-papist and a captive of the middle ages (Oberman 242). As a reformist, Oberman portrays Luther as a person who attracted more foes in high ranking positions than was prudent to do at that day and age. For example, he challenged the supremacy of the papacy and the mandate given to councils. Thoug h he acknowledged that the pope deserved respect as the bishop of Rome, while the papacy deserved being held in high regard especially because it was an institution created by agreeing people, he said that neither the pope nor the papacy deserved to serve as the standard of obedience. Instead, the Gospel should be used as the measure of obedience (Oberman 246). Oberman once again portrays Luther as a person who had a firm believe in himself and the things he did. For example, while his friends tried to dissuade him from publicly questioning the authority that the pope and the papacy office had on Christianity, Luther rendered an account based of St. Peter who the pope is modeled after. To this, he said that though Peter had a prime and honorary position among other apostles, his position did not give him any legal supremacy or authority to â€Å"make, send, govern or ordain other apostles† (Oberman 247). Oberman also portrays Luther as a man who believed that the institutions in the church should have been formed under the guidance of the Gospel. This he suggested should have been the case if people adhered to the gospel adequately instead of depending on heresy. According to Oberman, Luther insisted that the unwavering theology of the cross of Christ could not support either catholic-subjectivism or the protestant individualism. Rather, true theology would further unity in Christianity regardless of the denominations and would thus succeed in letting people know the need to heed God’s commandments. A reoccurring image of Luther throughout the book is that of unwavering and often fearless man. One gets the impression that Luther knew the possible implications of his words and actions but still chose to criticize or point out the evils that bedeviled the society mainly because the church then refused to play its rightful role and instead chose to engage in power games and governance. In 1519 for example when his ties with Rome were still intact, O berman observes that Luther said that the church â€Å"was an accumulation if schisms† (249). When the church in Rome finally excommunicated him, he burned the canon law and the bull of the pope to show his rapprochement. This was seen by some as the final act of revolt that Luther had started in 1517. Oberman notes that attempts by those opposed to Luther’s action to brand him a Hussite failed. Hussites had previously waged war against the Catholic Church and labeling Luther as one would no doubt would have cost him some support. Luther is however portrayed as a person who would have cared less about the labels that his opponents gave him. Luther is also portrayed as a person who attached meaning to his dreams. In Oberman’s account, it is stated that Luther had Utopian and devilish dreams, which he quickly recognized as traps set by Satan. In his interpretation, Satan conjured up images of purity for people and then encouraged them to understand the evil contai ned in their words, actions or thoughts (64-66). The reformation Oberman starts the chapter on reformation breakthrough by creating the Luther that people would have expected to see. Having become a doctor of theology, Oberman states that Luther was now in the same ranks as some stupid monks who spent their time arguing about nothing in specific. The monks perceived themselves as guardians of the proper doctrine and piety, yet, they were barely able to â€Å"count their own toes† (151). Oberman therefore portrays Luther as a truth seeker therefore contradicts public expectation of what the learned theologians of his time were used to doing. Oberman credits the reformist ideas of Luther to the fact that he (Luther) encouraged people not only to agree to the idea that God is just, but rather seek him with their entire beings, which included their thoughts and actions; bodies and souls; and suffering and love. Oberman also observes that the search for salvation as championed by Luther suggested that all people; whether educated or not could engage in the same exercise. Still, Oberman portrays Luther who did not allow his understanding of theology to alter his perspective or raise his voice to critique the medieval theologians who were regarded as authorities at that point in history. Central to the reformist ideas of Luther as noted by Oberman was Vicar General Staupitz. The latter is credited by Luther for â€Å"first of all being my father in this doctrine, and having given birth [to me] in Christ† (Oberman 152). Having introduced Luther into the doctrine, Oberman’s book indicates that Staupitz gave him a longing to seek the reality of the principles therein from the scripture. Still, not everything in the scriptures made perfect sense to Luther. More specifically, Oberman quotes Romans 1:17, as a scripture written by the St. Paul as an obstacle that Luther struggled with. The scripture reads: â€Å"For therein [in the gospel] is the right eousness of God revealed† (Oberman 152). During his study of the scriptures however, Luther appear to have come as one thing as the absolute truth; that God’s righteousness is the eternal law through which all men and women will be judged on doomsday. According to Oberman, the righteousness of God is not distributed to humankind like talents; rather, it put men who are willing to abide by God’s teaching in a position where they can attain righteousness. Luther’s discovery about God righteousness however suggests that it is united with Christ’s righteousness, further confirming that Jesus Christ and God the father are one. According to Oberman, Luther’s ability to think originally gave him the reformist qualities. More so, he was willing to test the discoveries he made while studying the scriptures against the prevailing laws used by the church. Luther’s discovert about the righteousness of God was unheard of during his time. He used it to discredit the doctrine of good works as championed by the church and to human action; he discredits the reward and merit ideals which were at the time the main motivators for human action (156). According to Oberman, tribulations and struggles make the true life of a theologian as opposed to speculation or philosophizing. Notably however, Luther’s experiences as a reformist reduce the fears, hopes, successes and struggles to two stages: 1) a desperate monk; and 2) the self-confident reformer. Oberman however notes that Luther astounds scholars because his works seems to have taken some form of systemic research, from which drew conclusions and finally delved into the world of reform. Accordingly, Luther’s reformist ideas were drawn from lesson from St. Augustine and St. Paul. After seeking a deep understanding of the scripture, he indulged in conflict with the pontifical church through logical accusations and arguments. Luther’s reformist role is not only co vered by Oberman alone. Other writers like Levi et al (259-284) have included Luther among the reformers who contributed schismatic solutions towards the renaissance and reformation. Luther’s Death Oberman gives the reader the impression that Luther’s death was not only waited by Luther himself, but his adversaries too. Most notably was Johannes Cochlaeus who first wrote about Luther. Unlike Oberman however, Cochlaeus did not have any kind words for Luther. He instead denounced him as the devil’s spawn that is portrayed in the Bible as the seven-headed dragon. What no one could not establish beyond Luther’s death however was whether his soul was taken by the devil or whether God rewarded it by taking it to everlasting happiness as Luther all along wished for in his life. Their books takes special note of the role that the reformist idea played in Germany at a time when Rome had taken the reigns of power in Europe through the office of the papacy and the p ope as the power figure. In this book however, one gets the idea that Luther’s ideas only set ablaze the feelings about Rome that had simmering in Europe and especially Germany. In an effort to solve the mystery of who between God and the Devil took Luther’s soul, Oberman’s book (3) gives an account of how simple believers and people in the academic world sought to establish the truth. The not-so-informed believers simply imagined that whoever was fast would snatch Luther’s soul first. The academic scholars on the other hand argued that a descent into hell could be easily diagnosed medically. According to their argument, Luther’s death would have been abrupt if the devil took his soul because, â€Å"the devil [would have] snipped the thread of life†¦, thus leaving the church unable to render its last assistance† (Oberman 3). As such, they argued that Luther’s slow death meant that he had commended his soul into the hands of God. Initially, Oberman (4) succeeds in portraying Luther as a patient, understanding and cheerful man who understood the reality of death in such a way that many men would have difficulties doing. More specifically, he describes how Luther knowing his death was imminent chose to spend his last days in his birth place in Eisleben where he mediated a protracted battle between two brothers. Weeks before his death, Luther is portrayed as a patient man who despite his despise for lawyers, spent hours sitting between the two parties trying to mediate them. Oberman also succeeds in portraying Luther as a man who had the nerve to accept that the inevitable death was eventually going to catch up with him. He even seems to have made fun of the fact that in death, he â€Å"would lie down in [his] coffin and give the worms a fat doctor to feast to on.†(5). Oberman also portray Luther as a man who had a firm believes in life after death although he did not state it as a fact. Rather, he said that â€Å"it was very likely† that people’s spirits in heaven would be renewed. He however stated that it was also likely that man’s spirit and body would remain undetached for people who would end up in hell (5). How closely Luther’s friends associated him with a man of God is evident when the news were first broken to his friend Melanchthon. Struggling for control and struggling to get the right words to break the news about Luther’s death to his students, Melanchthon used a phrase used to describe Prophet Elijah’s death. He told his students that the â€Å"charioteer of Israel has fallen† (Oberman 6). Having been the personality behind the evangelical movement and the reformation, Luther left a gap that had no immediate successor. To this end, Oberman manages to bring out the difference in tact between Prophet Elijah and Luther. Unlike Elija who had picked Elisha to be his successor, Luther had refrained from such a thing believin g that the Gospel would be strong enough to charge its own way (Oberman 7). Unfortunately, not every one shared in the Pope’s opinion. Conclusion Overall, reading about Luther gives one the impression that he was an argumentative, single-minded person, who hard an enormous amount of self confidence and believe. This characteristic mainly comes across because he did not waiver even when he faced opposition for his writings or spoken word. Being branded a heretic meant that he could face death by fire. Yet, even with controversies regarding his 95 theses raging, he could not renounce any of his written works or apologize for the same (Cep 5). He strongly believed that he had written the right thing and that apologizing for pinpointing the evils in the society would only lead to more tyranny. His writings and actions however led to his excommunication from the Catholic Church by Pope Leo and since Luther knew he could not reform the church from outside, he began the process of b uilding a new church (Cep 14). This marked the beginning of the protestant church, which was based on the concepts of freedom and liberty. According to Oberman, Luther never referred himself as the reformer; rather, he used the titles professor, preacher or doctor because he believed his role in Christendom was proclaiming the good works which were necessary for the survival of the real religion on the threatened world. Yet, Luther did not fail to have a fair share of shortcomings. Oberman notes that Luther, the ex-monk at some tome adopted the role of a new layman who was eager for the joys and pleasures that come with secular jobs. According to Brady, the new form of apocalypticism and worldliness that overtook Luther at some point meant that he became an alien to reformation (41). The progressive reformation that was as a result of Luther’s actions was far from his initial intention. Reading through Oberman’s account of Luther, it is clear that though Luther imagine d a world where the devil was forever pursuing God’s children, he adopted a sober view of Christianity and hence adopted a reformist role. Works Cited Brady, Thomas. The work of Heiko A. Oberman: papers from the symposium on his seventieth birthday. PA Netherlands: Brill Publishers, 2003. Print Cep, Casey. â€Å"The ecstasy is real†. The Harvard Book Review. Dec. 2008. Web. Levi, et al. Renaissance and Reformation: The Intellectual Genesis. New Haven, CT: Yale University press, 2004. Print. Oberman, Heiko. Luther: man between God and the Devil. California: The Doubleday Religious Publishing Group, 1992. Print. This critical writing on Luther: man between God and the Devil was written and submitted by user Paige Key to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. 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